The Science Seat: Sun will fry Earth - 'Sorry!'
Astronomer Jason Kalirai says he finds it rewarding to spark young people's interest in science.
February 8th, 2013
07:00 AM ET

The Science Seat: Sun will fry Earth - 'Sorry!'

By Nana Karikari-apau, CNN

Editor's note: The Science Seat is a feature in which CNN Light Years sits down with movers and shakers from many different areas of scientific exploration. This is the first installment.

Jason Kalirai is the deputy project scientist for the James Webb Space Telescope, which will be NASA's next big mission in astrophysics. He works at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore.

Last month, Kalirai, 34, won the American Astronomical Society's Newton Lacy Pierce Prize for his achievements in observational astronomy. CNN Light Years recently spoke with him about his work. Below is an edited transcript.

CNN: What inspired you to pursue a degree in science?

Jason Kalirai: As far back as I can remember, I was curious about the way things work. I’m sure I got this trait from my father, whom my friends actually nicknamed “MacGyver” when we were growing up. He enjoyed questioning how things operate and then trying to solve everyday problems through experimentation.

When I was in elementary school, I was fascinated by the night sky, and I wanted to understand the scale of the universe - how big it was, how separated the stars were, what else was out there? I started reading books about the Milky Way galaxy and the universe, put posters of our solar neighborhood in my room and kept asking the question “why.” Science not only provided me with the answers to these grand questions, but it opened up new mysteries that I was motivated to learn about.

CNN: What are five steps through which an astronomer solves a problem?

Kalirai: Astronomical research has many components to it. Astronomers are well-rounded and excel at problem-solving, data acquisition and analysis, writing reports and presenting results. Solving a single problem can take many years through this cycle:

In the first step of the process, astronomers design an experiment to solve a particular problem that they are interested in. Usually, this involves writing a proposal to use a telescope to gain new insights on the universe.

Next, astronomers obtain the observations. For ground-based astronomy, this typically means traveling to a mountaintop and collecting data, whereas for space-based observations the data are sent directly to the astronomer.

Scientists then analyze the observations using powerful computers, usually in their own offices. They also spend time writing computer programs to aid in the analysis. New discoveries are rare, so it takes very careful attention to details in the data.

Astronomers publish (their) results in peer-reviewed journals, so they have to write detailed reports of all of their findings. These reports are judged by other astronomers to make sure they are based on sound principles.

Finally, astronomers present their findings to the science community through domestic and international meetings.

CNN: What kind of astronomer do you consider yourself?

Kalirai: My focus is on observational astronomy, and I’m particularly passionate about using telescopes to push beyond the limits of what we’ve already seen. I try to discover new population of stars in our Milky Way galaxy and try to reveal new parts of galaxies in the nearby universe. Whenever I can get access to a new capability or technology in astronomy (e.g., a more sensitive camera), I like to take that tool and apply it to the kind of science problems that I most enjoy working on.

CNN: Why do you focus on star clusters?

Kalirai: Star clusters are one of the universe’s most remarkable environments. In a small region of space that is not too much larger than the distance between the sun and the nearest few stars to the sun, a cluster contains thousands of stars. These stars share incredible similarities, all having formed at the same time millions of years ago and with the same chemistry. The only difference between the individual stars is their mass, and mass happens to be the primary factor that controls how stars evolve (e.g., how long they live for, how bright they become and how they die).

So, observations of each individual star cluster give us a snapshot of how stellar evolution has shaped a population with that age, and we can complete a picture of stellar evolution by observing many clusters with different ages. As a result, star clusters anchor much of our knowledge of the universe.

CNN: How exactly do stars evolve over time?

Kalirai: We are used to thinking of the stars as fixed points in the night sky, but they actually go through a life cycle, just like humans. Newborn stars are very active and energetic, kind of like my twins. Stars in their middle years are kind of boring (dare I say, like our parents), and can spend billions of years not doing much other than converting hydrogen into helium. Toward the end of their lives, stars become “cool” again, kind of like grandparents are “cool.” The lifetimes of stars are so much longer than human lifetimes that we see them as being fixed over generations. But they all evolve from stellar birth to stellar death.

CNN: What is the main goal of your research program?

Kalirai: The main goal of my research is to understand the details of how stars like our sun, including those that are a little more and a little less massive, change over time. For billions of years, these stars will remain at the same brightness and temperature. This is great for humans on Earth since it gives us a stable climate. After the hydrogen in the sun is exhausted, the sun will become a stellar cinder and simply cool over time. We call this state, the end state of 98% of all stars, white dwarfs.

All of the action in stellar evolution occurs between these two phases, when, over a relatively short time scale, stars swell up into “giants” and spill their outer materials into space. The detailed understanding of this process, of how stars dramatically change, is fundamentally important to many research areas in astronomy. After all, the light that we see from distant galaxies is really just millions of individual stars at the tip of their luminous evolution.

CNN: If the sun will experience this dramatic change, what is the fate of our planet Earth?

Kalirai: The Earth is orbiting the sun at a distance of about 90 million miles. When the sun runs out of hydrogen in its core, it will begin burning hydrogen in a shell around the core and become very luminous and bloated. The outer layers of the sun will actually reach the Earth, and so the oceans will evaporate and our planet will be fried. Sorry! Fortunately for us, this won’t happen for several billions of years.

Based on my research on “stellar mass loss,” the sun itself will lose about 45% of its mass through this process. The remaining mass, the core of the sun, will be the white dwarf. Interestingly, the size of that core will only be a little larger than the Earth, so the remnant star will be very dense.

CNN: What telescopes do you use to study the stars?

Kalirai: I enjoy using the Keck telescopes on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. Over the past seven years, I’ve traveled to Hawaii to collect data from these telescopes more than a dozen times. The Keck telescopes are two of the biggest optical telescopes we have on Earth. The mirrors stretch over 30 feet across and the building itself is bigger than a house.

The site of the telescopes is also beautiful. Mauna Kea is a dormant volcano, and the telescopes sit at the peak, at the distance of 13,000 feet. It's a harsh environment to observe from since there is about 40% less oxygen at that altitude than sea level.

CNN: You recently received an award from the American Astronomical Society called the 2013 Newton Lacy Pierce Prize. What does it mean to your career, and how does it affect your future endeavors?

Kalirai: The Pierce Prize is the biggest honor that I’ve received in my life. I am very passionate about astronomy and work very hard, so receiving the Pierce Prize tells me that the rest of the astronomy community values my contributions. This means a lot to me and will motivate me to work even harder in the future.

CNN: What do you see as the major achievement of the Hubble Space Telescope so far and its most important discoveries?

Kalirai: Actually, I think its best years are ahead of it. It's amazing when a scientific tool can rewrite a textbook, but Hubble has managed to do it countless times. In 2009, astronauts serviced Hubble and put two new cameras on the telescope. These instruments are functioning fantastically, and the demand for Hubble observations by the astronomical community is the highest that it's ever been. I have absolutely no doubt that Hubble will continue to amaze us with new discoveries about the universe.

CNN: You also spend a significant part of your time working on the James Webb Space Telescope, the successor to Hubble. Tell us about this fascinating project?

Kalirai: The James Webb Space Telescope is one of the most ambitious scientific projects that humans have ever undertaken. NASA has partnered up with the European and Canadian space agencies to build an unprecedented telescope, one that is the size of a tennis court and will launch 1 million miles away from Earth. (Hubble orbits at 350 miles.)

Webb, as we call it, will be 100 times more powerful than any other telescope we’ve made, and is designed to revolutionize our understanding of the universe. It will seek the first stars and galaxies that formed in the universe, solve mysteries on how stars and planets form and look for water in the atmosphere of other worlds. I can’t wait to use it.

CNN: What are the most rewarding things about being a scientist?

Kalirai: Professionally, it's the fact that there is continuous satisfaction in expanding our knowledge of the universe. There are countless mysteries about the universe that we presently don’t understand, and it's amazing to be a part of the process that will yield answers to these questions.

Personally, it's very rewarding to see young people becoming curious about the way things work. I spend one day every month doing public outreach, where I visit science centers, planetariums, classrooms and other venues to communicate science. As I get kids excited about the STEM fields (science, technology, engineering and mathematics), I always try to leave a little nugget of information untold. It's extremely rewarding to get the phone call or e-mail afterward when you realize that you’ve sparked their interest in science.

To see what scientific thoughts are on Kalirai's mind today, you can follow him on Twitter at @JasonKalirai. Information about his research is also available on his Web page,

Post by:
Filed under: In Space • Science Seat • the Sun
soundoff (803 Responses)
  1. gac60

    We will be long gone before this happens due to global warming, just ask Al Gore who invested in all of the "green technology" and has made millions.

    February 11, 2013 at 9:56 pm |
    • Al Miller

      Unlike the Oil companies and other polluters who are making BILLIONS.

      February 14, 2013 at 4:28 am |
  2. zlop

    Solar System's isotope distribution supports
    Theory of Neutron core Sun, surrounded by an Iron Shell.

    February 11, 2013 at 8:01 pm |
  3. irwin lampros

    If you think Scott`s story is incredible..., a month ago my brother in-law made $9084 just sitting there a 10 hour week from home and there best friend's half-sister`s neighbour did this for four months and made over $9084 in their spare time from their labtop. follow the steps available at this link........ BIT40.ℂOℳ

    February 11, 2013 at 5:58 pm |
  4. The Mayor of Medinah

    I knew it this is true global warming, and it is the fault of my Hummer H1

    February 11, 2013 at 1:24 pm |
    • Al Miller

      While you are polluting the air and spending a fortune on gas, are you also texting, smoking and drinking beer?

      February 14, 2013 at 4:25 am |
  5. Woody

    Nothing last forever ! The human mammal is not as old as the earth and the human mammal has been on the planet for around a million years or so . Our so called religion today is only 2,000 years old . The bible is simply a book of compiled stories that people wrote and people put together . Life is really simple . We humans just for some reason like to make things much more complicated than they need to be . We live we die ! The end !

    February 11, 2013 at 3:37 am |
  6. Conrad

    don't you worry about the Sun
    because the humans will find the way to destroy any form of life
    before the Sun wiil fry the Earth and everything else in the Solar System.

    and I don't need a degree in science to say that

    February 11, 2013 at 2:43 am |
  7. Greatness

    You Didn't Create The Sun! U Don't Have The Right To Say Sorry! Only God Does!

    February 11, 2013 at 2:00 am |
    • the smart guy

      why do you keep fighting? no one person created the sun.

      February 27, 2013 at 6:30 pm |
      • TG

        The sun as well as the rest of the universe did not come into existence by itself, for what home has ever came to exist accidently ? As one lawyer said some 2000 years ago: "Of course, every house is constructed by someone, but he that constructed all things is God."(Heb 3:4)
        For example, the distance between the earth and sun has been established as critical, for altering it, even by a slight distance, would place mankind in jeopardy. Or if the earth were slightly larger, the gravitational strength would be greater, causing hydrogen to not escape into space, eventually making life on the earth unsustainable.

        Or if smaller, then gravity would be less, life sustaining oxygen and surface water would escape, and eventually our planet would be barren from the loss of all water. In either case, if the earth were slightly larger or smaller, life would cease to exist. Thus, was either the sun or the earth an accident ? No. Rather these were created (and placed precisely in their respective orbits and exact size) for obedient mankind to enjoy for eternity by our Creator, Jehovah God.(Isa 45:18; Ps 37:11, 29)

        February 28, 2013 at 10:37 am |
  8. Brian

    This has been known for decades. Why is it in the "news" now?

    February 11, 2013 at 12:20 am |
  9. John Creamer

    Is this really news? I can recall my brother and me discussing 50 years ago how the earth would be swallowed up by the sun one day.

    February 10, 2013 at 11:53 pm |
  10. stupid human

    "Sun will fry the Earth".

    Hopefully tomorrow, I really hate my job and don't want to go back ever again.

    February 10, 2013 at 11:24 pm |
  11. jj

    John 3 vrs 16 –

    " for god so loved the world that he gave his only begotten son that who ever belief in him shall not perish but have
    everlasting life"

    For the christians on the site that believe – just pray for the non believers, thats really all we can do....that hopefully someone will touch them in a way for them to realize the truth! prayer moves mountains and lets pray for them to see the light 🙂

    February 10, 2013 at 10:00 pm |
    • Blah

      For sayeth the tooth fairy...if thou leaves a tooth under ones pillow, thou shall receive a quarter

      February 10, 2013 at 10:04 pm |
      • sarjan

        yes your right as far as we know the toothfairy is not real – because its not in the bible! santa clause is not in the bible either, and neither is bigfoot!

        February 10, 2013 at 10:09 pm |
  12. Blah

    Hey christians, muslims, etc...The tooth fairy is real, prove me wrong

    February 10, 2013 at 9:59 pm |
  13. Clint

    Science wins every time. But let the religious nut cases still holding on to their mythology sound off and praise Zeus... I mean wait, this incarnation is about Jesus, Buddha, Allah and who knows how many others. In the end, the sun wins and fries us all and all this nonsense is left to those who escaped to other words in a starship.

    February 10, 2013 at 8:39 pm |
  14. Younivers

    I am wondering if the sun losing it's mass over time would result in the planets orbits getting the gravitational pull of the sun would likely diminish along with the loss of mass. If this is the case, could the earth possibly freeze before getting burned up as it would be further away from the sun? Just a thought...I am not very knowledgeable in this area.

    February 10, 2013 at 7:24 pm |
    • TG

      If the sun did lose mass, the gravitational effect would be weaker, having an impact on the earth's orbit. This would be disastrous. However, "the Creator of the heavens" (Isa 45:18), Jehovah God, has purposed that the sun remain stable for eternity. Why ? In order that the earth remain forever with "meek" ones living on it as desired when he created Adam and later Eve.

      He made a blueprint of what the earth is to become with the Garden of Eden, it being a paradise.(Gen 2:8, 9) He told the first human couple: "Be fruitful and become many and fill the earth and subdue it, and have in subjection the fish of the sea and the flying creatures of the heavens and every living thing that is moving on the earth."(Gen 1:28) He created man to live on the earth everlastingly.

      However, only those who are humble or teachable by God, "meek" ones, will be allowed to live for all eternity on the earth.(Matt 5:5) In the Bible, David wrote under inspiration: "But the meek ones themselves will possess the earth, and they will find their exquisite delight in the abundance of peace....The righteous themselves will possess the earth, and they will reside forever upon it."(Ps 37:11, 29)

      February 12, 2013 at 11:44 am |
  15. Joe

    We won't have to wait that long to die. The fossil fuels will run out in 100 years and the ice caps are already near dissolved. We'll drown before frying.

    February 10, 2013 at 6:53 pm |
  16. IAm

    And the LORD our God sayeth ye shall smite the foes of the kingdom, and ye shall hold onto thy loins as the oxen hoisteth the plow. Deuteronomy 13:7

    This proves that the LORD our God will protect and keep those who believe, and reign terror upon those who don't.

    February 10, 2013 at 6:47 pm |
    • Blah

      I hope the rapture happens soon so that all of us rational people can finally live in peace

      February 10, 2013 at 10:02 pm |
  17. danny m

    im tired of people bashing GOD are you people that dumb that you cant see that we have a creater and all of space and the
    earth was created by GOD. people say that the universe was created by the big bang well let me ask you this what created the big bang? and as for the time frame some of you a fixated on the bible says "to god a thousand years is like
    a day and a day is as a thousand years". and god also said I will send you strong ellusions so that you may beleve a lie and be damed.

    February 10, 2013 at 6:08 pm |
  18. BoogerFree

    Obviously the Liberals are to blame for this one.

    February 10, 2013 at 5:53 pm |
  19. CNNuser

    We all evolve. I think it will be a time when bigots will not have a chance to get a job because the world becomes more and more precise and there will not be place left for irrational people. But to this day they eat community's bread like protracted disease healthy body. Whatever religion is based on, first of all it attempts to bloom for expense of less fortunate. Many like to play this game not because they accept the myth but because they hope to confuse others while stealing bigger piece of benefits for themselves. Religion sellers looking for easy life when someone else will do their job and they compete in cheat.

    February 10, 2013 at 4:44 pm |
  20. Paul

    I'd comment on all this except I have more urgent business – stubborn boogers to chase.

    February 10, 2013 at 3:50 pm |
  21. Alex

    This isn't news, CNN. We've known about it for some time. It's one of the reasons I believe humans need to make an effort to expand outward from our home planet.

    February 10, 2013 at 3:27 pm |
  22. John

    I hope I'm still breathing when the James Webb Space Telescope comes online, it's going to be a great show, and I'd hate to miss it. So hurry up.

    February 10, 2013 at 2:52 pm |
  23. Ron H

    The fact that our Sun will die and consume the Earth is (I think) a well known one. It is also so far in the future that it really doesn't concern anyone. Way before that happens, it's almost a certainty that we will experience other 'Earth shattering' events such as asteroid collision, super volcano, global climate change, super flu epidemic, coronal mass ejection , nuclear holocaust, etc. etc.

    These doomsday scenarios have also been broadcast to the general public quite a bit by the mass media recently. I think CNN would be better served to focus on some of the new frontiers of science and what they could mean for mankind. These topics would be far more interesting and provide hope and inspiration. There's no doubt that mankind faces a lot of challenges. The greatest challenge of all is igorance and CNN can do us a great service by providing education and opening our imaginations to what is possible. That's what I'd like 'Light Years' to be.

    February 10, 2013 at 2:47 pm |
  24. George

    David, The Bible says that the Sun goes around the Earth. Do you really believe that?

    February 10, 2013 at 1:52 pm |
    • K from AZ

      Let’s see if I’ve got this ‘scientific’ thing right:
      The belief is that there was once absolutely nothing. And, nothing happened to the nothing until the nothing magically exploded (for no reason), creating everything & everywhere. Then, a bunch of the exploded everything magically arranged itself (for no reason whatsoever), into self-replicating bits which then turned itself into dinosaurs.
      And, they mock my beliefs.
      ps. chapter & verse where the Bible states that, please.

      February 10, 2013 at 1:57 pm |
  25. Epidi

    The human race race will very likely be dust long before then – wether we take ourselves out or by natural selection. I find it amusing how many people think we are above every species who ever lived or is curently living on this planet and that we must be some type of special "chosen" ones. We are special in that, like every other living thing here, we are a unique being in a second's tick of the clock of time in this planet's creation, evolution, & death.

    February 10, 2013 at 12:56 pm |
  26. a famous brony

    ancient news is ancient. Catchy headline to grab viewers, but ever since we knew about supernova's, we knew ours would blow some day. And that that day isn't any time soon. sigh..

    February 10, 2013 at 12:20 pm |
  27. mattyb

    why does every article on science or religion turn into a debate on the existence of god or the fallacies of science? you people are so predictably stupid. You people ruin this interesting interview

    February 10, 2013 at 11:36 am |
  28. Joe the plumber butt

    Bring it on. I'm working on my tan!

    February 10, 2013 at 10:18 am |
  29. Bob

    This was on the seventh grade science curriculum in 1990 and probably long before then. Why is it news?

    February 10, 2013 at 10:11 am |
    • K from AZ

      Because the 'reporters' at CNN are either stupid or incompetent!

      February 10, 2013 at 1:59 pm |
  30. Rick F.

    Actually, for all of you prejudiced Christian bashers, if you think about it only for a moment, the Bible reveals how the world is going to end (in fire) long before the scientists started to try to figure it out. So much for the "3,000 year old book written by ancient Middle Easteners." The "when" and the exact process of the "fire" are the parts that're up in the air, because they're not revealed – Revelation and it's multiple interpretations aside.
    And for the "religious posters" on this site, at least get the name of the book right before you go spouting off. It's "Revelation," NOT "Revelations" or "Reveletions." That make religious people look like the simpletons a lot of people already think we are.

    February 10, 2013 at 10:10 am |
    • TG

      Many feel that the earth will be "burned up", citing 2 Peter 3:10 as read in the King James Bible. However, when a critical examination is made, it can be found that 2 Peter 3:10 does not say "burned up", but rather "discovered". How is this known ?

      By looking at both the Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus of the 4th century, it is now known that someone after the 4th century supplanted the Greek word heurethesetai (meaning "to find or discover") with the Greek word katakaesetai (meaning "to burn down") at 2 Peter 3:10 in later Greek manuscripts, such as the Codex Alexandrinus of the 5th century.

      That the earth will remain forever, can be seen from reading what David was inspired to write at Psalms 37, whereby it says that "the meek shall inherit the earth; and shall delight themselves in the abundance of peace....The righteous shall inherit the land, and dwell therein forever."(Ps 37:11, 29, King James Bible) Furthermore, Psalms 104 says that our Creator, Jehovah God "laid the foundations of the earth, that is should not be removed forever."(Ps 104:5, King James Bible)

      February 12, 2013 at 10:47 am |
  31. Charlei Harvell

    And this is supposed to be news? I remember learning this in the 6th grade about 50 years ago. But that's OK, My state taught science, at least when the Dems ran the state .

    February 10, 2013 at 10:05 am |
  32. Jeff

    Funny that all the comments by the non believers are so harsh. Pure evil in this world. If you don't agree you don't have to be rude about it. If someone wants to believe in God why put them down. He wasnt being rude to you he was making a statement about his beliefs which he has the right to! I feel sorry for you lost souls and I will pray for you all

    February 10, 2013 at 9:46 am |
  33. Kona

    Another stupid non-story by CNN. Once again you have proven how stupid reporters can be! Please stop hyping up stuff that has been know for decades.

    February 10, 2013 at 5:40 am |
  34. Spoilerfantic

    I am a Christian. I believe in God. (cue the name calling)

    I am not religious. My mission in life is to follow Jesus. Jesus came to destroy man-made religion. It was a bunch of religious guys who killed Jesus in the first place (to protect their own religion).

    I went to university. I have a degree in Engineering. I am educated. I trust all the Christian bashers are educated as well. For these Christian bashers – I have some very simple questions:

    1) Where did the matter from the Universe come from? Did everything come from nothing?
    2) What caused the big bang?
    3) Did life come from non-life?
    4) Where did the information in DNA come from? How did it become so organized and structured?

    These are very simple questions. Please keep your responses respectful.

    February 10, 2013 at 2:32 am |
    • Medicine Man

      Unfortunately, your questions are not simple at all – which is why it takes a tremendous amount of work to understand the answers. If you are genuinely interested in the detailed answers, start with Wikipedia and look up the explanations for your four questions. For every explanation you don't understand, find an explanation that you do (which may be as simple as clicking on a link). I'll warn you now: it's really hard work.

      I can give you very simple answers, but you won't understand them without doing a lot of work even at this level:

      1. Yes. It's possible to model that very simply – look for my post about adding 0^0 to zero.
      3. Yes. Bear in mind that we only recognize one kind of life: ours.
      4. The information is an emergent property – but you'll need to look up what that means.

      Finally, the discussion here hasn't even touched on the fact that everything that we can currently see (and "see" is a loaded term, since some of the stuff we observe we can't actually see – such as black holes) in this universe amounts to barely 5% of what's actually in the universe. 95% of it we're only just beginning to get a handle on (dark matter and dark energy).

      Reality is far more fantastic than fiction...

      February 10, 2013 at 5:37 am |
  35. Is j being censored on CNN, multiple comments never posted, some were deleted, par let's golf

    "He enjoyed questioning how things operate and then trying to solve everyday problems through experimentation."

    Hello NASA, can we put the scientific method back into non-robotic space exploration since our break during the cold war? The ISS is a missnomer, no trains stop there, and it's in LEO; Is the thermosphere, a layer of Earth's atmosphere in space?

    what layer of the atmosphere is iss in

    Solar S'Mores – NASA Science › ... › 2000 May 30, 2000 – "There are layers of our atmosphere that extend hundreds of kilometers above Earth's surface," ... "The space shuttle and the ISS both orbit within the thermosphere.

    February 10, 2013 at 1:44 am |
  36. Leaving

    The United Federation of Planets will surely help us out ...

    February 10, 2013 at 1:13 am |
  37. tekbit

    Prediction is shovelling 5 inches of partly cloudy

    February 10, 2013 at 12:20 am |
  38. tekbit

    Read "Accelerando" and put your fears to rest. The best Router in the Universe 🙂

    February 10, 2013 at 12:16 am |
  39. Is j being censored on CNN, multiple comments never posted par let's golf

    NASA – Our First Lunar Program: What did we get from Apollo? Oct 17, 2007 – Even if the Apollo missions had never landed on the Moon, the program as a whole ...

    "never landed on the moon"

    Let's cut propaganda from human space colonization and adhere to the scientific method! Would a golf ball ever land back on our Moon; And if so, how big should the 18 hole course be?

    February 9, 2013 at 11:48 pm |
    • tekbit

      I would venture to say that it would depend upon you were playing Golf on the Light side, or the Dark side of the moon.

      February 10, 2013 at 12:25 am |
    • Ron H

      If you plan to play golf on the moon, make sure you take a cart and a lot of balls.

      February 10, 2013 at 9:06 pm |
  40. jdun

    Astronomy is cool. I took astronomy for non science majors in college (easier math), it really opened my mind to scientific study. Unfortunately, there are those in America who would replace science with religion in the public school classroom if they could. That is why I will always oppose vouchers and private charter schools- keep religious dogmatism out of school. I also find it mind boggling how people can accept some written religious text from thousands of years ago (choose any religion) and refuse to accept proven science.

    February 9, 2013 at 9:53 pm |
    • TG

      Science can answer some questions, giving us facts. But it is lacking in answering some troublesome questions that have been pondered for millennia, such as "Why is there a universe ? Why does the earth have an abundance of life, including intelligent life ? If God is truly almighty, why does he permit evil and suffering ? And is there hope beyond the grave ?

      Austrian physicist and Nobel laureate Erwin Schrodinger (1887-1961) said of science, that it "gives a lot of factual information, but it is ghastly silent about all....that is really near to our heart, that really matters to us." This includes, he says, "God and eternity." Only in the pages of the Bible can such answers be found.

      February 10, 2013 at 10:18 am |
  41. john

    Check out song on this topic.

    See the lyrics...

    February 9, 2013 at 9:11 pm |
  42. Rick Springfield

    Earth in the near term needs to be more concerned about the global warming cycles that have been going on through its lifetime. We know of four happening in the past 450,000 years. The ice core samples in the South Pole at Vostok show us that the poles will melt. The South Pole melts and greens over with trees. Then the warming cycle comes to an end and the cooling cycle begins. The entire process takes 125,000 years. We are at the end of the current 125,000 year full cycle. We have around 1000 years before the Earth warms enough to melt the poles. Nobody left us any signs of the previous warming, cooling cycle except some cave paintings. We will have way better record keeping the next time around. But what will humanity do when the warming cycle ends and the ice age begins? Earth needs to consider it happening going forward.

    February 9, 2013 at 8:14 pm |
  43. Hot not

    Yes the sun will do that, but soon before that we will be done in by thje coming Ice age, which is coming and is coming fast! – our interglacial vacation is at it's 11th hour, all climate scientist know that, and the big frezz is coming not for a few hundred years but 10s of thousands. By the way the global warmer hoaxsters trying, to change the subject in order to slide out of there consequences of perpetrating the biggest scam/fraud in human history- your not going to get away with it :-), we're coming and you will be held accountable for your scam.

    February 9, 2013 at 8:12 pm |
  44. dyno8

    The more sins we commit here on Earth ... the sooner we'll burn.

    February 9, 2013 at 7:54 pm |
    • Luke


      February 9, 2013 at 9:58 pm |
  45. ginahagler

    Reblogged this on Synthesis and commented:
    Calling all budding astronomers!

    February 9, 2013 at 7:38 pm |
  46. t

    ........A couple BILLION YEARS till the Earth is fried...........that should be enough time to get rid of the Tea Party.

    February 9, 2013 at 6:43 pm |
  47. TDJ

    If God didn't exist, there wouldn't be people who deny him.

    February 9, 2013 at 5:07 pm |
    • LOL YA

      Logical disconnects and the ignorant. I mean people deny the other ~4000 gods that people have worshiped exist so that makes them real right? In the bible god even denies he exist, but you would not have read that because no one who has read the bible all the way though could possibly believe it true.

      February 9, 2013 at 9:27 pm |
      • TG

        The Bible establishes that there is a Creator. At Isaiah 42, it says: "This is what the true God, Jehovah, has said, the Creator of the heavens and the Grand One stretching them out; the One laying out the earth and its produce, the One giving breath to the people on it, and spirit to those walking in it."(Isa 42:5)

        Due to the churches telling falsehoods about God, such as there being a "hellfire", that the soul is immortal, and that he consists of three persons in a "Godhead", combined with the pedophiles in the Catholic church, as well many other instances of moral corruption, many have been turned off to their being a Creator.

        Charles Darwin was one of them because after the death of 10 year daughter in 1851, he could not accept that maybe she was in "hell", being tormented. So he turned his thoughts toward evolution and wrote the book "Origin of the Species" that was published in 1859.

        February 10, 2013 at 9:28 am |
      • Medicine Man

        Could you not be bothered to read up about the man before stating such glaring untruths? Wikipedia is only a click or two away...

        His five year voyage on the Beagle ran from 1831 to 1836. He was planning to become a parson when he returned. But his studies gave him such a wealth of fascinating data that he set that idea aside.

        His ideas on evolutionary trees began to form in 1837-1838. He married Emma in 1839. He wrote the first rough draft on his ideas about evolution (a 230 page "sketch", as he put it) in 1844. During this time he also wrote and published other books – he was a workaholic. Annie fell ill in 1851 and died, and he was heartbroken.

        So by the time that you say he supposedly turned to writing about evolution, he'd already been working on it for at least 25 years and it took a further 8 years to complete the 250,000 word treatise that was only a set of proposals – not a definitive description.

        This is why it galls so many scientists when the antiscience crowd scorn evolution as "just" a theory; 31 years of hard work, often while battling ill health and prejudice – and still it's only a hunch.

        I don't disagree with you about how the Catholic church has distorted a huge part of what is today's Christianity, but let's be fair: Darwin's ideas (building on the work of others, too, it must be noted) were as groundbreaking then as Newton's ideas on gravity, maybe even as important as Einstein's ideas on relativity.

        February 10, 2013 at 11:55 am |
      • TG

        Charles Darwin, at the age of 18 (in 1827) entered Cambridge University in preparation of becoming a clergyman of the Church of England. However, upon graduating from it in 1831, with the recommendation of John Stevens Henslow, a naturalist, who taught young Darwin to be a careful observer of natural phenomena, Darwin was taken aboard the English survey ship HMS Beagle as an unpaid naturalist.

        It is true that Darwin began to form his theory of evolution after returning to England in 1836, working on it for the next two decades. His theory was first announced in 1858 in a paper and his complete theory was published in 1859 in On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection.

        According to historian Alister McGrath, it was Darwin's "visceral distaste" for the doctrine of hellfire – not his belief in evolution – that raised doubts in his mind about the existence of God. McGrath also noted that Darwin's felt "deep grief over the death of his daughter" in 1851.

        Hence, Darwin was turned off by the churches teaching of "hellfire", especially after the death of his 10 year old daughter. This pushed him in the evolutionary direction even further. Yet Charles Darwin's last sentence in the 1872 edition of On the Origin of Species said: "There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being evolved."

        He still felt that there is a God, but the "crumbs" that the churches dispensed (Luke 16:19-21), put him in a quandary. The churches have not taught the truth about our Creator, Jehovah God, but has tried vehemently to hide his name, replacing it with "Lord" or "God" in almost all of the over 7000 places it is found in the Bible.

        February 10, 2013 at 5:24 pm |
  48. The_Mick

    It is unscientific to assume that no one will figure out a way to either move the earth, the sun, alter the suns chemistry, or alter the space in which the earth and sun exist in the four billion years between now and the Sun's expansion. Someone a few hundred years ago would have assured us that the Leaning Tower of Piza was sure to eventually fall over if he was unable to anticipate 20th and 21st century engineering capabilities.

    February 9, 2013 at 5:06 pm |
  49. adfgdgdfgd

    Too bad we cant ban people who don't believe in science from enjoying all the benefits of science.

    No hospitals, no computers, no cell phones, no video games, no movies, no planes, no cars, no electricity, etc, etc, etc.

    The vast majority of these people actually do believe in science they just claim they don't. If they get sick they turn to modern medicine, if they are reading this they are using a computer, etc, etc. They enjoy the fact that their car doesn't spontaneously transform into a dragon because of a witch and then eat them.

    Yet its the same people who claim over and over, so and so is just a theory! When they clearly don't understand what the word theory means. Something is not a theory in scientific terms UNTIL it is backed up by facts. If it is not backed up by facts it is NOT a theory.

    February 9, 2013 at 5:06 pm |
  50. kelliayne

    This guy has been listening to Al Gore too long!

    February 9, 2013 at 4:57 pm |
  51. fredelia grasso

    uptil I saw the bank draft that said $9163, I didn't believe father in law was truley making money in there spare time at there labtop.. there friends cousin had bean doing this less than 17 months and as of now paid for the mortgage on there home and got a new Lancia. read more at........... BIT40.ℂOℳ

    February 9, 2013 at 4:31 pm |
    • kelliayne

      Have much trouble spelling?

      February 9, 2013 at 4:58 pm |
  52. bornagain

    I love how people who believe in God are labeled the "insane" ones? At least we are consistent in what we believe, it is science that is always changing it's mind. Didn't science once tell us that the earth was flat and also was the center of the universe? That really sounds like the logical side to me. Then we have this "big bang" theory which makes absolutley no sense at all whatsoever. The basic laws of cause and effect says that something can not be created out of nothing. So what created the big bang then? The fact of the matter is the same laws of basic science completely disprove all of the theories that atheists hold in relation to how and where we came from. Also, just to point out atheistic communism has accounted for more than one hudred million deaths alone (hitler, stalin, mao) so enough with this "religion has killed so many people" nonsense. Get over yourselves please.

    February 9, 2013 at 3:12 pm |
    • Medicine Man

      Science "changes its mind" because that's what it's supposed to. It updates itself when there is really good evidence to support the change. It's religious nuts (not sane believers, of whom there are a few) that persist in believing in something against all evidence to the contrary – that's called dogma.

      Science never told anyone the earth was flat – very few people have ever believed that.

      Science didn't say the earth was the center of the universe, either – but the Catholic church insisted it was and persecuted anyone who suggested otherwise (such as Galileo).

      If you bother to learn what the big bang is and what it entails, then it does make sense – but few people bother to even try.

      The laws of cause and effect (whatever that means) say nothing about the creation of something out of nothing – but they do say something about the arrow of time.

      Simply saying that science disproves whatever atheists think about where we come from does not make the statement either true or even remotely credible. Back up your claims with scientific evidence.

      Lots of despots have been responsible for the untimely deaths of lots of people, but so have religious zealots, bacteria and viruses, natural disasters and old age. Every despot you mention began with a religious upbringing – so what? Hitler was a Christian but that's not why he killed so many people.

      One thing that always bugs me about the religious nuts who get their panties in a wad whenever anyone (scientist or not) publishes an observation that they misinterpret as an attack, is that having launched a diatribe against anyone who isn't a believer they then proceed to play the victim card. It's so pathetic

      February 9, 2013 at 5:04 pm |
      • Phazon

        Catholic religion is a lie what Jesus and his apostles started Constantine changed and allowed pagans into the church look it up. You know you may not think of it as an attack but it is an attack because of a few scriptures one being God did not create the earth to be destroyed he created it to last forever you don't think thats an attack but one man is saying God is wrong you may think your smart because you believe science over God but the earth and the universe and all things it holds are proof God exists.

        February 10, 2013 at 2:08 am |
      • Medicine Man

        @Phazon It's not a question of being smart – it's being able to recognize when reality and belief are in conflict, and then making a sensible decision as to which one to accept.

        February 10, 2013 at 5:25 am |
    • LOL YA

      Yes science told us the earth was flat because the bible says so. The reason it took so long to rectify that error is because you could be executed for refuting what the bible says. It has been miss proven and rewrote over and over again to keep the blind; blind.

      February 9, 2013 at 9:30 pm |
      • Phazon

        Read Isiah you are sadly mistaken because in that scripture it says the earth is like a sphere hanging on nothing whats a sphere a circle whats a circle round you should read that scripture.

        February 10, 2013 at 2:10 am |
      • TG

        The Bible establishes the earth as round. At Isaiah 40, here it says: "There is One dwelling above the circle (Hebrew chugh, meaning "circle or sphere") of the earth, the dwellers who are as grasshoppers, the One who is stretching out the heavens just as fine gauze, who spreads them out like a tent in which to dwell."(Isa 40:22) It further gave insight long in advance of "hanging the earth upon nothing" at Job 26:7, whereas the Greeks said that it was held up by the mythological Atlas some 1000 years later.

        February 10, 2013 at 9:49 am |
    • rickbliss

      Creating the universe out of nothing is, I believe, not quite accurate. A more accurate statement would be "out of nothing detectable". Current science suspects that the total energy of the universe is zero. What do we find when we look inside elementary particles, nucleons and atoms? Empty space. How is it that all matter is made of empty space? What is space? If you gather all scientific data and think through it to put it all in a meaningful framework, one finds some surprising things. First, the space that we are familar with is a composite structure made of another type of space. Yes, I suspect space comes in 2 flavors. We are familar with real space that has separation, distance, dimensionality and is quantized. The other space flavor is just the opposite. I call it Imaginary Space. Imaginary space is not quantized, does not have separation/distance and does not have dimensionality. It is continuous, infinite and yet has no size. It would not be detectable with our current technology, but its influence is everywhere in quantum mechanics. Because it is continuous, partial differential equations are applicable,. Mathematics can describe it and govern it. Imaginary space was undefined. Second, our universe is increasing in size and complexity continuously. The embryonic imaginary space universe was no different. It evolved, became exceedingly complex, unstable and as we know disintegrated into our real universe in a big bang, creating real space, energy, particles etc.. Well, this process is simple in principle, but extremely complex in implementation. So that in a nutshell is how we came suddenly from "nothing detectable". I omit many, many details required to assemble the whole, but I hope you get the idea.

      February 10, 2013 at 6:32 am |
    • Dave Green

      "The basic laws of cause and effect says that something can not be created out of nothing." <--Oh But there is a god...I don't know how, or why, but it just is. It doesn't answer to the law of cause and effect because it's special and're all fools!
      Do you people ever stop and think about the stuff you say? Apparently not.
      By the way, science doesn't "change its mind." It adapts understanding with new information. Unlike your apparent paradigm which seems to be.."This is the way things are cuz I say so...neener, neener, neener." wonderful!

      February 10, 2013 at 10:55 pm |
  53. TC

    There was no beginning and there will be not end. Was the universe created out of the "Big Bang Theory" and that gravity had a lot to do with it? Or was it God? Where did gravity originate from? Here is a very interesting article relative to some issues addressed on this discussion board.

    February 9, 2013 at 2:45 pm |
  54. cat

    really, i'm scared

    February 9, 2013 at 2:10 pm |
  55. David

    And you are being called a Scientist and get paid big bucks to tell us THIS?? I learned it when I was in middle school, after hydrogen depletes stars expand. DUHH

    February 9, 2013 at 1:22 pm |
    • Arias

      This is CNN for public consumption. If you want academic journals there's a different site for that.

      February 9, 2013 at 6:31 pm |
  56. virginia

    _ its a sure thing that Science inspires us to think or debate the existence of God- that's because science brings fears=emotions into the equation to the unknowns. what science attemps to discover to travel into dangerous territories cause the unknowns are alway exciting and it takes overcoming fears to venture in.

    February 9, 2013 at 1:18 pm |
    • Arias

      Although that's not the case for other secular western industrialized nations where a science article brings out those interested in science to discuss the topic. Here in the US on a mainstream site like CNN, your average person is so scientifically illiterate with a great deal of religion thrown in that discussions end up being about mythology instead of science ... which is really quite a shame.

      February 12, 2013 at 9:22 pm |
      • Piperman

        Couldn't agree more. Maybe CNN should have a separate Science-vs-Religion website.

        February 13, 2013 at 2:08 pm |
  57. virginia

    it might be known by all by now that inductive reasoning's path can take one to the center of insanity - only God can offer the safety require to bring oneself out of such unfounded state of mind...deductive reasoning is what we find conforable as individuals most athiest cling to the deductive reasoning of life- there for can never find what is hidden behind the instability of inductive a scary thing only God's wisdom can safely bring you back to sanity dedactive reasoning...the definition of sanity is to think dedactively at all t ime in your life...inductive reasoning is not even dare to be explore ... by the majority.

    February 9, 2013 at 12:51 pm |
    • palintwit

      I love to try some of whatever it is you're smoking.

      February 9, 2013 at 12:54 pm |
  58. palintwit

    Sarah Palin..."redefining stupid, one sentence at a time".

    February 9, 2013 at 12:49 pm |
  59. virginia

    one needs religion to concur the fear Science present to the individual – only through logic -reason or science can one overcome the fears (which is an emotion) to explore the unknowns with out fear of loosing oneself with in the bast infinity existence represents to the individual..

    Religion meaning the support of other individuals, God believing the force the offers one pretection in unknow territories where one is bound to find itself unable to return but only through the wisdom and Guidence of nature or God's will can one return to what is known by all as dedactive reasoning. one needs God's protection to dare go into the inductive reasoning of nature.

    February 9, 2013 at 12:45 pm |
  60. Lightoening

    Since red dwarfs live for trillions of years, is it possible that they accrete enough mass on their journey through space that they never lose mass?

    February 9, 2013 at 12:45 pm |
  61. virginia

    one needs religion to concur the fear Science present to the individual - only through logic can one overcome the fears (which is an emotion) to explore the unknowns with out fear of loosing oneself with in the bast infinity existence represents to the individual..

    Religion meaning the support of other individuals, God believing the force the offers one pretection in unknow territories where one is bound to find itself unable to reture but only through the wisdom and Guidence of nature or God's will can one return to what is known by all dedactive reasoning. one need God's protection to dare go into the inductive reasoning of nature.

    February 9, 2013 at 12:38 pm |
    • David

      What kind of language is that? English of the Ignorant State?

      February 9, 2013 at 1:23 pm |
  62. K from AZ

    The sooner, the better! Can't take Comrade Obama for another 3.5 years!

    February 9, 2013 at 12:31 pm |
    • palintwit

      Stupid teabagger ^

      February 9, 2013 at 12:47 pm |
    • I AM

      There is another way out of your misery you know.....think about it,,,,,try to think about anything.

      February 10, 2013 at 3:32 pm |
  63. virginia

    yes we can all be scientist but becoming a scientist does not mean suppressing our feeling and being cruel to our emotions, but it means to find answers to give confort to our emotional needs, the need for sorvival – life.. so a cheer to the God believing people as well as to those who seek the truth even when their search if found in science.. for logic is born of the need for a better life here on earth and to find that heaven we call paradise.

    February 9, 2013 at 12:31 pm |
  64. Russ

    These things always come down to a debate about religion vs science. Since science has at it's core the necessity to prove what is said, and religion is something you have to take on faith, with no proof, I come down on the side of science. That is not to say that you shouldn't be a moral person, which is what religion is all about, but you don't need religion, or belief in a creator, to be a good person. Also, consider the fact that the Bible was written 3000 to 2000 years ago, long before science existed, and many of the things written in it have been proven wrong. Gallileo was jailed and labeled a heretic because he was so daring as to propose the earth moved around the sun. In case you didn't know, he was right.

    February 9, 2013 at 12:28 pm |
    • K from AZ

      Let’s see if I’ve got this ‘scientific’ thing right:
      The belief is that there was once absolutely nothing. And, nothing happened to the nothing until the nothing magically exploded (for no reason), creating everything & everywhere. Then, a bunch of the exploded everything magically arranged itself (for no reason whatsoever), into self-replicating bits which then turned itself into dinosaurs.
      And, they mock my beliefs.

      February 9, 2013 at 12:34 pm |
      • Medicine Man

        It's actually quite easy to model the idea that something can come from nothing, using very simple mathematics.

        If you add 0 (nothing) and 0^0 (i.e., nothing raised to the power of nothing) together, the result is...1

        It happens because of the properties of numbers. Any number – even zero – raised to the power of zero, is always 1.

        So adding that to 0 yields 1. Something from nothing. It's not as simple as that in reality, but if you want a simple model that's the simplest I know of.

        February 9, 2013 at 2:44 pm |
  65. virginia

    _ to be or become the best of Scientist one must first acknowledge all emotions and have a clear undestanding of them all in secuence to the other emotions_ in doing so one has the open mind to discover with out fear the subline as well as the reality in wich one finds oneself withing and without_ keeping in mind that at all times reason is procuring the savety of one's emotions in the venture of discories.

    February 9, 2013 at 12:25 pm |
  66. Deesnutz

    I learned this 13 years ago in College, why is this news?

    February 9, 2013 at 12:04 pm |
  67. Joe

    CNN, your headlines are such a joke! Your writers suck!!!

    February 9, 2013 at 11:48 am |
    • GlobalScorching

      Your comment is quite a literary effort, revealing great discernment. Did you think a lot before writing, or was it a sudden inspiration? Perhaps you should look for a higher class neighborhood that better deserves your posts.

      February 9, 2013 at 12:00 pm |
    • K from AZ

      Eloquently put!

      February 9, 2013 at 12:47 pm |
  68. Confused

    You can have my gun when you pry it from my cold, dead fingers!!

    Oh wait, wrong debate. Personally I think that if we're still living on this godforsaken rock a million years from now, nevermind a billion, we desrved to be fried to a crisp. What we should be doing is trying to develop technology that would allow us to travel to other star systems so we can find primitive alien cultures there to subjigate. It is humanity's favorite past-time, after all.

    February 9, 2013 at 11:32 am |
    • GlobalScorching

      With a little planning, we might be able to use solar power to launch Spaceship Earth to our own favorite (and younger) star. I would think light surfing would get better towards the end.

      February 9, 2013 at 11:36 am |
  69. Abdul Qadir

    Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) already told that the world will end much sooner, when Prophet Isha (Jesus) (PBUH) will descend to Damascus and fight with Dajjal and his forces. We don't need science to tell us about how the Earth will end, it is already written 1400 years back in Quran and Hadith. That is the miracle of Islam.

    February 9, 2013 at 11:01 am |
    • palintwit

      I use the Quran to wipe my butt.

      February 9, 2013 at 11:23 am |
      • GlobalScorching

        A little more twitting and a little less butting might be a good thing.

        February 9, 2013 at 11:31 am |
    • the smart guy

      uuugh this is a science area. stop yelling religion at everyone

      February 27, 2013 at 6:32 pm |
  70. spybreak47

    Real reason they are looking in to these galaxy!

    February 9, 2013 at 10:50 am |
    • ET

      Sorry, my bad. Was trying to call Spielberg. Brotha owes me $11.

      February 9, 2013 at 5:38 pm |
  71. Christian

    This discussion just proves 2 Corinthians 4:4.

    February 9, 2013 at 10:41 am |
    • Lightoening

      You have a very low threshold for assigning truth.

      February 9, 2013 at 12:47 pm |
  72. nn

    It would appear that humans are perfectly capable of destroying the Earth long before the sun will. We'd be better off dumping religion altogether and focusing on science, so that in the end we can save ourselves. When I say "save" I mean as a species. Not in any religious way. (I'm trying to make a serious point, not some religious nonsense–just to be clear).

    February 9, 2013 at 10:26 am |
  73. car russo

    there are many things we don not understand. we do not know if we exist .what is time? we still are not sure how to explain gravity. does a soul mean that we do not exist, and when we die we are in another source.. our mind is the center of the universe. how all that information got in there is unexplainable this may sound weird but give it a thought

    February 9, 2013 at 10:17 am |
  74. Gabe

    It will take a couple billion years for it to engulf us, but our oceans are going to boil away in only 200 million years.

    February 9, 2013 at 9:45 am |
    • GlobalScorching

      I suppose the real estate bubble will burst even before that?

      February 9, 2013 at 11:39 am |
  75. ChanMac

    1. Why are people arguing over OLD well known info...
    2. By the time those days are coming (and ASSUMING we survive 1000s of Real Doomsday's) we would have the power of a star already and therefore the power to manipulate them.
    3. We prob would be living in 100s if not thousands of other areas by then.

    February 9, 2013 at 9:05 am |
  76. Enigman

    Oh you foolish people, you are so far removed from the truth. The Earth is part of creation, as well as you. The Earth contains life because the Creator gave it life and his glory and grace reside in the Earth. He created you to have a relationship with him. Once sin entered peoples lives they became far removed from God and followed their own paths of a sinful nature, correct? Who among you has not sinned? Sin cannot enter into the presence of God, hence a need for forgiveness. Which is the only way to be back in fellowship with God, hence Christ his son the ultimate sacrifice for the forgiveness of sin! It is not something you have earned certainly, but despite yourselves it is a gift that no one can take away from you, all you need to do is ask! What a great gift the ability to be forgiven just by asking with a sincere heart. If the LORD was to remove his presence from the Earth, all of the Earth and all that is in it would become desolate because there is no life outside of your creator! Hence the day of Judgement, that one day when all will come before him and answer for everything they have done, wether it is concerning themselves or the way they have treated others. So be it, Amen.

    February 9, 2013 at 8:54 am |
    • Evolved One

      Shut up wanna live in fear go right ahead and do so but please allow the rest of us to enjoy our stay here on MOTHER Earth?

      February 9, 2013 at 9:29 am |
  77. Dan

    No problem. We just need to find another habitable planet. Other solar systems will get closer by then.

    February 9, 2013 at 8:46 am |
    • GlobalScorching

      Sorry, other solar systems will be farther away by then. We'd better make our move now.

      February 9, 2013 at 11:41 am |
  78. Miss Melanin

    the sun only fry white folks. everybody knows that.

    February 9, 2013 at 8:37 am |
    • Dana

      I had better stock up on suntan lotion.

      February 9, 2013 at 8:40 am |
      • Reggie

        "...Anyone not wearing 2 million sunblock is gonna have a real bad day."

        -Sarah Connor, Terminator 2: Judgment Day

        February 10, 2013 at 12:52 am |
  79. And? ...

    "... so the oceans will evaporate and our planet will be fried. Sorry! " BFD. Nothing more than what we've known for years and years. Our solar system is supposed to exist forever?

    February 9, 2013 at 6:54 am |
    • Dan

      True. They are acting like this is late-breaking news.

      February 9, 2013 at 8:35 am |
  80. zlop

    Powered by neutron repulsion - "The Sun is a ball of Iron!" ?
    Does this explain the weak Ancient Sun, or the recent cooling of the Earth's Surface ?
    (average temperatures have always been between 10C and 25C)

    February 9, 2013 at 6:39 am |
  81. Gene-Lution

    Sounds interesting, appears much thought and research. I am just waiting for someone to tell me what the Sun is actually made from. Has anyone been able to take a sample of the Sun's core? Has anyone ever been to our nearest star to obtain a sample of anything?

    Could there be other periodic elements not yet discovered? We really do not even know what our Milky Way really looks like–perhaps we might get beyond the reaches of our galaxy to get a picture? Just looking for facts–anyone can speculate just to have their moment in the limelight or their name in a book.

    Keep up the great work.

    February 9, 2013 at 5:37 am |
    • zlop

      Small Neutron core surrounded by Iron ?
      "in recent months, challenge the popular idea that the Sun is powered by thermonuclear reactions at its core.
      And they point to nuclear reactions on the Sun's surface, something considered impossible under the standard model"

      February 9, 2013 at 6:53 am |
    • Dan

      You don't have to go outside the galaxy to take a picture of it. You can take one from here. There is a lot of empty space so you can see all of it. Scientists can also tell what something is made of without going there but you wouldn't know that.

      February 9, 2013 at 8:38 am |
    • GlobalScorching

      The sun is made from green cheese, same as the moon.

      February 9, 2013 at 11:49 am |
  82. D


    February 9, 2013 at 5:20 am |
    • zlop

      "New Ice Age 'to begin in 2014'. Russian scientist to alarmists: 'Sun heats Earth!'"
      !985 was a 60 year cycle minimum - additionally the 200 year cycle has peaked.
      Ice Age Doomed we are - Al Goracle and the Unelected IPCC are wrong !

      February 9, 2013 at 6:59 am |
    • UncleBenny


      February 9, 2013 at 9:00 am |
      • GlobalScorching


        February 9, 2013 at 11:45 am |
    • GlobalScorching


      February 9, 2013 at 11:48 am |
    • GlobalScorching


      February 9, 2013 at 11:53 am |
  83. david

    What a waste of time studying and learning!!!, all he had to do was to read Revelation 16:8 to know that. he is only very wrong about the time, it will happen soon people, your not alive on this planet by chance, there is a creator and time given before judgment day.

    The fourth angel poured out his bowl on the sun, and the sun was given power to scorch people with fire.

    February 9, 2013 at 4:04 am |
    • Viking1717

      Nice Bronze Age version of astronomy dude!

      February 9, 2013 at 5:30 am |
    • Dan

      You probably crack open your fairy tale whenever you don't know something.

      February 9, 2013 at 8:39 am |
    • Gawd

      This article is about fact not fiction. Go read the religious "news".

      February 9, 2013 at 8:39 am |
    • Evolved One


      February 9, 2013 at 9:31 am |
    • rapier1

      You do know that the Book of Revelations was a political screed written by John of Patmos in order to keep Christians hopefully during the reign of Nero, right? It was specifically focused on the end of the persecution of Christians by the Emperor. That stopped being an issue with Constantine.

      February 9, 2013 at 10:41 am |
  84. Yo!

    By that time, we would have evolved into beings who do not need water to live and can withstand the heat provided by any known sun in the milky way. We probably would have populated all the planets that right now we could not survive on.

    February 9, 2013 at 3:14 am |
    • ET

      Like me! b/t/w have you seen Spielberg? Brotha owe me $11.

      February 9, 2013 at 5:46 pm |
  85. Peter

    The sun is scheduled to fry the Earth in billions of years from now. Unless humans or our evolutionary descendants are still around, that is. Think about it. If we survive that long, we will be sufficiently advanced technologically that we will very likely develop a way to extend the life of the sun.

    February 9, 2013 at 1:27 am |
    • Richie

      or move to another planet.

      February 10, 2013 at 12:35 pm |
  86. Reggie

    What's with all the Christian bashing here? IMHO the truly ignorant posts above were trolls designed to defame Christians. Every Christian I personally know is certainly aware that the earth will be rotisseried to a crisp by the sun, billions of years from now. This does not contradict our eschatology in any way unless you presume us all to be fundamentalists – which most of us are surely not. For millennia our tradition had held that at least in a spiritual sense, this world will end in fire and brimstone – while modern science informs us of the specifics how this will materially come to pass. It is all quite affirming and enriching.

    February 9, 2013 at 1:19 am |
    • Evolved One

      79 million Americans (approximately) consider themselves to be "evangelical" christians. I would say that number right there is one not to be ignored given the propensity of many evangelicals to ignore science, push moral agendas, spread lies and fear, interfere in political realms and indoctrinate children into their nonsense culture. Something to be aware of and something that deserves to be addressed here given the amount of posts quoting bible fairy tales.

      February 9, 2013 at 9:35 am |
      • Reggie

        I think this term "evangelical" has multiple meanings. It primarily refers to protestant fundamentalist groups as you perceive, so yes you are using the term "correctly." But many who are neither fundamentalists nor protestant yet engage in some form of evangelism may actually self identify on surveys as evangelical – as I myself have occasionally done. This was a very different use of the word on my part, and it makes me wonder how many people who are not fundamentalists have ever done that.

        February 9, 2013 at 11:22 am |
      • Reggie

        Also, as the very large protestant denomination, E.L.C.A. are not fundamentalists, but do have "evangelical" prominently in their name, and I'm sure many members would likely self identify as "evangelical" for that reason alone.

        February 9, 2013 at 11:34 am |
    • TG

      Because of 2 Peter 3:10 having been tampered with around the 5th century C.E., being changed from "the earth and the works in it will be discovered" (reading of the Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus of the 4th century C.E.) to falsely reading "the earth also and the works that are therein shall be burned up" (KJV and reading of the Codex Alexandrinus of the 5th century C.E.), many have the mistaken belief that the earth will be destroyed by fire.

      At Psalms 104, it says: "He (Jehovah God) has founded the earth upon its established places; It will not be made to totter to time indefinite, or forever."(Ps 104:5) Psalms 93 also says: "Jehovah himself has become king ! With eminence he is clothed.....The productive land also becomes firmly established so that it cannot be made to totter."(Ps 93:1) Jesus confirmed this, saying that "the meek shall inherit the earth."(Matt 5:5)

      February 9, 2013 at 3:41 pm |
      • ET

        Maybe so, maybe so. Have you by chance seen Spielberg? Brotha owe me $11.

        February 9, 2013 at 5:48 pm |
      • Reggie

        Thank you TG that is very interesting, and the first time I've encountered that information. It won't be lost on me. I have electronic copies of the codices Alexandrinus, Sinaiticus and Vaticanus, and am studying Koine Greek so I will be able to review your memorable points further. Thanks again!

        February 10, 2013 at 12:13 am |
      • TG

        Please do, for by examining ancient manuscripts in light of the Bible, it can be determined that there were cases of intentional tampering, such as at 1 Timothy 3:16, that reads in the King James Bible: "God was manifest in the flesh", whereas the most ancient Greek manuscripts read "Who (Greek hos, pointing toward Jesus and not theos meaning God) was manifested in the flesh".

        Also, 1 John 5:7, in which the words "The Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one" has been added. The Codex Leningrad B 19a reads: "For there are three witness bearers", excluding the above words that someone placed there in order to promote the trinity doctrine.

        It has been found that an advocate of the trinity evidently included the words in a Latin treatise in the 4th century as if they were a quotation from 1 John 5:7. Later that passage was put right into the text of a Latin Bible manuscript, which crept into two or three late Greek codices.

        February 10, 2013 at 11:12 am |
    • Arias

      So what would say the breakdown is Reggie? Of 79 million evangelicals how many actually believe in science?

      February 9, 2013 at 6:36 pm |
      • Reggie

        Hard to get a handle on that. Estimates I've seen range from 30 million, to 70-80 million "fundamentalists" in the USA. I'd say that even on the higher estimates, they are definitely some fraction smaller than one half of all Christians in the USA. Maybe a fourth to a third. With apologies for redefining another word further, what we see as a fundamentalist "movement" today emerged early in the 20th century as essentially a reaction to modern culture.

        February 10, 2013 at 12:06 am |
  87. looknclick

    Predictions like this are pointless because in ~100 of years everyone will forget it was ever predicted.

    February 9, 2013 at 1:08 am |
    • Viking1717


      February 9, 2013 at 5:24 am |
    • Dan

      It was not just predicted. This has been known for a long time.

      February 9, 2013 at 8:41 am |
  88. popeye1128

    I think I'll be dead by then and anyone I care about and anyone they care about for a very, very long time.

    February 9, 2013 at 12:27 am |
    • david

      What a waste of time studying and learning!!!, all he had to do was to read Revelation 16:8 to know that. he is only very wrong about the time, it will happen soon people, your not alive on this planet by chance, there is a creator and time given before judgment day.

      The fourth angel poured out his bowl on the sun, and the sun was given power to scorch people with fire.

      February 9, 2013 at 4:16 am |
      • JD

        Seriously? You want to use a passage written by a human 3000 years ago in a theoretical book to debate when the world will end versus modern science?

        February 9, 2013 at 5:06 am |
      • Viking1717

        You're quite moronic!

        February 9, 2013 at 5:22 am |
      • Oh

        Wrong David, but nice try.

        The truth is we will all be jettisoned to planet Kolob. Just ask Mitt if you fail to believe me. There's still time for you to be saved, just abandon your false beliefs and turn to the one true religion.

        February 9, 2013 at 7:15 am |
      • David...the sane one

        I love when religion trumps brings out all the crazies. I have no problem with religion, except when it makes seemingly ordinary people appear really really stupid. Better to keep your mouth closed and us think you are stupid, vs. opening your mouth and removing all doubt.

        February 9, 2013 at 8:07 am |
      • PushingBack

        LOL! Harry Potter is more factual than your Bible!

        February 9, 2013 at 8:08 am |
      • Spaceenthusiast

        David, you are seriously misguided. You poor human being, deprived of knowledge. It's people like you who worship mythological characters, and believe a book written by primitive humans, that will slow down the advancement of the human race. I look forward to the day all humans are done with fairy tales and we can all work together to explore and study deep space without turning to a non-existent deity to answer questions about our universe.

        February 9, 2013 at 8:21 am |
      • Bleh64

        Now, now JD, we all know that the earth is only 7000 years old!!!! Hehe, thumpers make me laugh.

        February 9, 2013 at 8:26 am |
      • Dan

        Your fairy tale bible is not right about anything else. Why would you think it is right about that?

        February 9, 2013 at 8:34 am |
      • Karakaye

        David...1Corinthians 2:5-7 The elect know where to put their faith.

        February 9, 2013 at 8:36 am |
      • pie

        Has to be joking. I smell sarcasm all over it. Besides, everyone knows Luke Skywalker will save us.

        February 9, 2013 at 9:20 am |
      • religion is dumb

        The Bible was written by middle easterners in ancient times, and you're going to believe it? The very same ones that dreamt up the Koran and other religions? Religion has killed more people than anything. Catholics killed everybody, Muslims killed everybody, Christians (the worst of all) killed everybody...all of them did it in the name of their god because they believed their religion was right.
        People love their religion because it gives them emotional highs, called "warm fuzzies". Then they base their thinking off of that, and that's when common sense goes right out the door. Science is also wrong all the time, too. Why? Because we're stupid humans who make mistakes. All these religions have a TERRIBLE history. About the only thing that came out of religion somehow is morals (after all the killings? weird). Too bad religion wastes your life away on empty BS. I can see believing in a god, but not the Christian god, nor the Muslim god, nor the Catholic god, nor the Mormon god, or any of it. The stories are dreamed up by idiot ancient people and we still follow it today. WOW...dumb, blind people to say the least!!!!!

        February 9, 2013 at 9:59 am |
      • don keller

        I knew there would be a nut case commenting on this one..

        February 9, 2013 at 10:05 am |
      • SaltyBob

        Sorry fairyland is in the fiction section you need to go there. Also Religion is something invented by the imagination or feigned to control others.

        February 9, 2013 at 10:29 am |
      • Nate

        @David I smell a troll here. I mean you CAN'T be serious...

        February 9, 2013 at 10:52 am |
      • Joe

        Hey davis,
        Studying and learning is the key to finding out what to believe. If you study history you will find out a lot of those bible storys are based on an older civilization Mesopotamia. Hate to tell you but they passed down stories. On top of that the bible was written 75 to 100 years after Jesus's death. So you tell me if the Romans didn't make most these stories up with a few passed down stories. You know the only reason Christianity is so popular today is because the Roman Empire got a hold of it.

        February 9, 2013 at 10:58 am |
      • Beans

        Oh jeeze...When will the religious fanatics accept that science is right instead of constantly blabbering about

        February 9, 2013 at 11:00 am |
      • Andy

        Thank you David for this input. Sometimes I laughed at the level of attack your post received. Absolutely, nothing can change the truth as stated in the Bible. They can fight it, ridicule it, call God whatever name they want. These doesn't change who God is. He is still God, He exist, and that is it! These are men who are so coward to accept the existence of evil forces, submit to it and justifying it through some scientific jargons. When a mortal man thinks the ultimate of everything and the proof of any life's dimension are not more than what his six senses as controlled by the organ in his crania dictate, I can't but laugh and laugh. I hope they get to know what life really is and not all these exhibition of waste and denial. Once again thank you David for lending your voice. I agree with you absolutely!

        February 9, 2013 at 11:25 am |
      • Jonathan

        Uhmmm ANDY...... sorry to burst your bubble but we only have 5 sense.

        February 9, 2013 at 11:43 am |
      • Joe

        Laughable....Are you from West Buro Baptist?

        February 9, 2013 at 11:47 am |
      • virginia

        David there are seven angel in Revelations " and in those days people will be reading Reveletions to find answers but it will be to late for those who didn't repent of their sin's God's judgement will be up on them - there are 3 more to come come before all people are judge by the word of the lord _ and God's days are internall so its clear that one billion year could very well only be one hour of God's days as he measure seven days he created the heaven's and the earth and in such time too the end of time came...billions of year per second if you really take the seven day foundation and ending of the universe as we know it today...but remember its seven angels all toguether 4 is not the end yet.

        February 9, 2013 at 12:16 pm |
      • That's just crazy talk

        ...and that's why Christian's contribute very little to the progress of our species. According to them to move forward, all you need to do is look backwards only a couple thousand years. All the answers we need were written people riding donkeys.

        February 9, 2013 at 12:37 pm |
      • Andy

        many thanks Jonathan, I meant to say 5 senses. kindly help add the 's'. The sixth sense has to do with the perception of the subtle dimension or the unseen world of angels, ghosts, heaven etc.

        February 9, 2013 at 12:44 pm |
      • Nisism Levy

        I thought the sixth sense was about being able to see ghosts or something like that.

        February 9, 2013 at 1:11 pm |
      • Jan

        Well, David, One thing for sure We both know the truth.
        You can argue all day long with fools but one thing for certain we have back up. What do they have? Sarcasm.
        There is only one true GOD, The son and The holy spirit. In other words the trinity. For you foolish people-> Mark 8:36-38. Read! You may change your ways. You can insult us all day long and still ... You have everything to lose.
        This will be my only post as I have given you the truth. I cannot argue with 2 year olds all day long no matter what you all have to say next.

        February 9, 2013 at 1:56 pm |
      • that guy

        basic biology disproves this.

        February 9, 2013 at 2:25 pm |
      • TG

        That the sun will remain forever is seen that of the earth, the Psalmist wrote: "He (Jehovah God) has founded the earth upon its established places; It will not be made to totter to time indefinite, or forever."(Ps 104:5) The Creator of the universe, Jehovah, has purposed for the earth, as well as the rest of our solar system (which naturally includes the sun), to remain everlastingly. Why ?

        At Isaiah 45, the prophet Isaiah wrote: "For this is what Jehovah has said, the Creator of the heavens, He the true God, the Former of the earth and the Maker of it, He the One who firmly established it, who did not create it simply for nothing, who formed it even to be inhabited: " I am Jehovah, and there is no one else."(Isa 45:18)

        When God conceived the heavens (universe and the earth, Gen 1:1), he had conceived of making mankind, as the epitome of his creative handiwork.(Gen 1:31) He made the "heavens" for the enjoyment of those who would love him. Hence, when he made Adam and later Eve, he wanted man to "fill the earth" (Gen 1:28), making the earth to be our "home" forever, to be a paradise.(Luke 23:43)

        As Malachi 3:6, says: "For I am Jehovah, I have not changed", so God will fulfill his purpose of having "meek" ones live on the earth eternally. Jesus said: "Happy are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth."(Matt 5:5) Thus, the sun will remain forever, never burning out, just as the moon will always be a "faithful witness" in the sky that is absolutely necessary for life on the earth.(Ps 89:37)

        February 9, 2013 at 3:19 pm |
      • Pelegrim

        Your child-like belief in the supernatural is cute, but worthless drivel.

        February 9, 2013 at 4:20 pm |
      • Ryan

        Anyone who is taking this seriously has just got trolled.

        Have a nice day.

        February 9, 2013 at 4:59 pm |
      • Peter

        David, CNN has also a belief blog where people like you can ramble on their nonsense. Why don't you stay there and share your "wisdom" with those who are lost to reason?

        February 9, 2013 at 6:34 pm |
      • keplerfan

        Scientists use "non-fiction" books for study That is why they are more usefull than churches.

        February 9, 2013 at 7:31 pm |
      • Russell's Teapot

        It will happen soon huh? You do realize people like you have been saying that for roughly the last 2000 years right?

        February 9, 2013 at 8:50 pm |
      • God

        I can see that a bunch of comment writers on here need smiting...

        February 9, 2013 at 9:14 pm |
      • LOL YA

        How can you honestly comment about science with mythology. I mean your comment says it all. Only the blind can believe the lies.

        February 9, 2013 at 9:23 pm |
      • Grey

        calm down francis...

        February 9, 2013 at 9:37 pm |
      • Luke

        I don't get it.

        February 9, 2013 at 9:51 pm |
      • dgoren1

        Very humorous. I think I'll take the view of science over the few of fairy tales.

        February 9, 2013 at 11:14 pm |
      • Chzwiz

        Y@David. There is some dispute over the passage "The fourth angel poured out his bowl on the sun, and the sun was given power to scorch people with fire.". It should read something like "Angel urinates on Sun and reverses global warming on Earth. This saves mankind from endless arguments that accomplish nothing.". That reminds me. Charlie Manson used Revelations to justify his activities. Have a nice day. 🙂

        February 10, 2013 at 12:59 am |
      • Phazon

        First there is a creator second of all revelations is symbolic revelation speaks mostly about world goverments and false religions the beast with the horns represents world powers the harlot represents false religion hence false religion rides on the backs of the worlds goverment in order to find the true religion one must find the ones that seperate themselves fromthe world they do not vote and they pledge no allegiance to country or man only God and his kingdom you may have a curiosty to learn more but you shouldn't lean on your own understanding.

        February 10, 2013 at 2:01 am |
      • Jesus Christ

        Are you high?

        February 10, 2013 at 2:04 am |
      • Mary

        Why not JD...?
        You are only repeating what modern man has to say to day about there being NO God...

        February 10, 2013 at 5:02 am |
      • Rob

        Well, unfortunately David. You are wrong. This topic he talks about has nothing to do with belief, faith, or for that matter any religious context. You are taking your trusted concept of the "the unknown" and trying to compare it with a "known", a quantifiable. A fact. The fact is, the sun, simply "does" that – expands as part of it's death. This is not something based on some mysticism, tale, or lore.

        Now, you'd probably scoff at what I am say, and that's fine...

        The fact does remain, just cause words show up in a book, millions believe, does in no way shape or form make it more factual or real than a known absolute. It's like this. McDonalds has served millions, yet anyone can tell you it's still bad for you...

        Oh, and I do believe in God, for sure, yet my foundation of belief and faith is not based out of fear of being punished for a sin. It's about being a good human being.

        February 10, 2013 at 8:38 am |
      • maine liberal

        Dave you will want to read up on false prophets

        matthew 24:36 "However, no one knows the day or hour when these things will happen, not even the angels in heaven or the Son himself. Only the Father knows.

        Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves

        February 10, 2013 at 10:07 am |
      • Steve

        Amen David!! For the message of the cross is foolishness to those who are perishing but to those who are being saved it is the power of God. 1 Corinthians 1:18

        February 10, 2013 at 10:21 am |
      • Kevin

        We are in the minority David and that will continue until

        "The fourth angel poured out his bowl on the sun, and the sun was given power to scorch people with fire."

        February 10, 2013 at 10:31 am |
      • a famous brony

        go home troll, you're drunk.

        February 10, 2013 at 12:17 pm |
      • mikedenney

        The most awesome part, if you do 'imbibe' in 'the faith', is that Jesus pretty much said "God Knows" when he got tired of people asking when the world was going to end (likely those with more than three mistresses, and all with wives who knew).

        February 10, 2013 at 1:19 pm |
      • Brandon H

        This article has nothing to do with religion. I'm a Christian and you are embarrassing.

        February 10, 2013 at 1:48 pm |
      • HenryO

        David. You are RIGHT on the money. These fools believe man, when God, time after time, shows these fools how is was, how itis, and how it will be. Thanks for your accurate post.

        February 10, 2013 at 4:23 pm |
      • ThinkAgain

        The Bible was written when humans had a very limited understanding of how things really worked. This scientist is explaining the same thing as Revelations.

        Here's something to consider, though: Perhaps the point of all theological teaching is not CYA activity, but to live a life such that the world is a better place from you having been there.

        February 10, 2013 at 4:53 pm |
      • Blondie

        OH THANK YOU!!!! I'm converting immediately to Jesus Christ. Like NOW! Oh God I can't wait for him to arrive on a steed with silver wings!

        February 10, 2013 at 5:13 pm |
      • Mariner II

        David clearly you still believe in fairytales. This is the 21st Century but there are still people out there like you that are influenced by 1st Century nonsense. We have empirical proof, (I know you'll have to look up that word) that continuing to educate ourselves over a lifetime leads to a more meaningful and productive life. Now of course we understand that there are still primates out there that have not been able to keep pace with the evolutionary tract and for that we recommend spending more time at the zoo, just to see how your relatives are doing. Good luck with that!

        February 10, 2013 at 5:13 pm |
      • Mr.Green

        This creator then is an even bigger threat than the devil. Have you no shame of the lives lost because of your lord?

        February 10, 2013 at 10:19 pm |
      • Dave Green

        Uh, yeaaahhh...It also says in Revelation 16:3 "The second angel poured out his bowl on the sea, and it turned into blood like that of a dead person, and every living thing in the sea died.".....When that happens then i might worry about the sun. Until then, here is a red bouncy ball. Go play with it and let the adults speak.

        February 10, 2013 at 10:50 pm |
      • No Invisible Friends

        Blah blah blah...God said...blah blah...the Bible said...blah blah...whatever. Show me the data! Oh yeah, that whole "Our God is an awesome God" thing really slays me. Anyone know of any religion that says "Our God is mediocre, kind of great, etc."? Thought so. Would be cool if all religions gods would have a throw down and see who really is the most awesome!

        February 10, 2013 at 11:21 pm |
      • poop

        please stop , lets get along and be positive personal opinion is only yours

        February 11, 2013 at 12:56 am |
      • Steve

        Yeah modern scientists are quite silly. It is going to be exactly as the bible says.

        February 11, 2013 at 4:41 am |
      • pwzl

        David on the discovery of the "God Particle":

        David: "Ooooh! The 'God Particle' exists! This will surely prove to those blasphemous scientists that God does exist."

        February 11, 2013 at 6:40 am |
      • Buck

        It's quite hilarious to see how many people fell victim to a rather obvious internet troll.

        February 13, 2013 at 10:43 am |
      • Navyvet

        David, David, David... The bible was written to give religious leaders control over mankind. If you don't do this, then bad things will happen, and if you do this, good things will happen. Someday the creator will decide enough is enough and wipe us all away, but if you listened and did everything the book says, you will be saved from the end of days and wisked up to heaven to sit in the glory of god forever and ever... REALLY!?? Read it as a book, a work of fiction. That's all it is. It is less than 3000 years old, much less. It has been translated so many times and reintrepreted by those who were in the seats of religious power that even if there was a shred of fact in it, it has been so distorted and confused that it would be useless as a roadmap to anything resembling salvation. We as a species, race, whatever you want to call us are in the very most infant levels of self realization. The universe is billions of years old, and for us to think that god put us here, we all originated from just 2 people a few thousand years ago, and we are the only planet with any life whatsoever is,... well for a lack of a more descriptive term IGNORANT! Happy Valentine's Day everyone.

        February 14, 2013 at 11:37 am |
      • the smart guy

        why does everyone fight over religion. enjoy life right now not 6 billion years in the future

        February 27, 2013 at 6:27 pm |
      • TG

        Indeed, religions of the world has proven to be a force not for unity but division. However, the one true religion which Jesus established in the 1st century, genuine Christianity, has proven to be a force for peace. But the churches have not followed Jesus teachings, creating their own religious arrangement, accepting pagan traditions and teachings, such as the Catholic church that is patterned after tradition and its formula is based on religious falsehoods rather than what is true.

        In fact, the teachings of Jesus were so distorted and twisted after the death of the apostles so as not to be recognizable in the following centuries. The one true religion provides a basis for living forever on an earthly paradise "in the abundance of peace"(Ps 37:11, 29) in the near future. Religion then will not be a force for division, but peace, all of mankind being united, for there will be only one religion existing, the true one that honors our Creator, Jehovah God.

        February 28, 2013 at 10:11 am |
    • Coyote Loco

      ..., this won’t happen for several billions of years....
      Thank God - at first I thought he had said , "this won’t happen for several millions of years" - Really had me scared..

      February 9, 2013 at 9:13 am |
      • Mr. Slate

        Man, I've gotta make my final arrangements.

        February 9, 2013 at 9:42 am |
    • GlobalScorching

      I think you're taking an awfully short-range view. Try to enlarge your vision a little...

      February 9, 2013 at 11:21 am |
    • Alienate

      I think I'll just be mad at CNN again for their idiotic headlines trying to get page views.
      A math professor calculated that sometime in the next 200 years CNN will call it quits.
      This is just as exciting as this article.

      February 9, 2013 at 1:00 pm |
      • K from AZ

        . I voted Democrat because I believe that people who can’t tell us if it will
        rain on Friday can tell us that the polar ice caps will melt away in ten years
        if I don’t start driving a Prius.

        February 10, 2013 at 1:53 pm |
      • Andrew

        God dam- I hate people who feel qualified to talk about something they clearly know nothing about. First, lets clear one thing up, weatherman are not climate scientists. They are different jobs. Weatherman, also called meteorologists, look at radar generated datasets to determine local short term flucuations.

        Climate scientists look at global climate proxies (from ice core samples, to tree rings, to IR satillite measurements, to solar activity measurements, etc) to determine long term models for climatological trends.

        In science, this is called the difference between the "noise", and the "signal". The "noise" is weather, it is local and short term phenomenon that is remarkably difficult to predict. If you were to look at, for example, a histogram of decay times for uranium over a very short time period, it would be impossible to ever determine how uranium decays. That's because it decays randomly with a set time constant (the 'half-life'). Half life means on average 'half the substance will decay after this period of time', but you can never predict when an individual atom will decay. The 'signal' on the other hand is the general trend. Over the long term, if you look at that histogram, you will see that the time between decay events behaves like an exponential curve. That is how we can determine the half-life of a radioactive substance, because over the long term the signal is easy to distinguish from the noise.

        The random unpredictible element, the 'noise', is exactly what we expect meteorologists to predict. We expect them to see phenomenon form, and then make educated guesses on what the weather pattern will do. Noise is very hard to predict, that's why it's referred to as noise, it just makes data look bad and random.

        Climate scientists are tracking long term trends, long term flucuations in overall climate patterns. If I put a block of ice in my oven at 350 degrees, I can't tell you what parts will melt first, or where the ice will fracture, or how evenly it will melt, etc, but I can tell you "that ice will melt". Long term trends are much MUCH easier to predict than short term trends.

        Second (And this will go over your head because you don't care enough about the two groups to differentiate climate scientists from weatherman, but for anyone with an interest in statistics, it's actually kinda cool), weatherman are fairly accurate.

        *GASP* I hear you cry. 'How can you say they're accurate when they can't tell me what the weather will be like tomorrow?'. The answer is because most people have no clue how to evaluate statistics. At all. People are downright dumb when it comes to understanding the language of statistics.

        You hear weatherman saying "there is a 50% chance of rain tomorrow", that means if the weatherman is good, on average, 50% of the time when he says that, it won't rain!

        If there's a 30% chance of rain, 30% of the time he says that, he should be wrong, meaning for every 10 times he says "30% chance of rain", we expect to see rain 3 times over the long term. If you don't, then he is lying to you about his certainty. To actually declare weatherman as 'bad', you have to be willing to sit down and record their predictions and confidence. If you find that on average when they say they expect a certain probability, they wrong more or less often than they predicted, you can firmly declare "you have bad measurements, or are lying about your probabilities".

        It requires doing number crunching and evaluating someone based on how their discipline works, rather than just complain because you're too ignorant to understand how meteorology works. But despite this you feel so very qualified to make your cheap snipe.

        Funny how the most ignorant always feel more qualified to comment on subjects they know nothing of, than someone with actual exposure. That behavior is called the dunning-kruger effect; you are a perfect example of it.

        February 10, 2013 at 10:52 pm |
    • tom

      Why do they have to write an article scaring people about the sun burning up the earth? In the several billion years before this happens, mankind will already have become extinct from other causes, or will have become technologically advanced enough to not be bound to the earth anymore.

      February 9, 2013 at 1:31 pm |
      • kent

        hi tom: i really doubt anyone is scared at this point. just saying.

        February 9, 2013 at 11:13 pm |
      • maine liberal

        You have never taken an astronomy course 101 . birth and death of a star.
        there is only fear of the unknown this is known.

        February 10, 2013 at 12:01 pm |
      • Al Miller

        Boy, it will be a much different world when enough people will read an article like this to affect a large portion of the populace.

        February 11, 2013 at 3:28 am |
    • james

      Hey David, I have land in Florida I am trying sell. Interested?

      February 9, 2013 at 3:55 pm |
    • Robert

      Earth will burn up in billions of years but life will all be gone long before then, top scientist put the estimate at around 500 million years. Each hundred million years temps go up 10% percent, what keeps the temps in check is the amount of co2 in the atmosphere. As the sun gets hotter the amount of co2 drops and therefor temps are balanced, this can only last so long before plants start dying because of lack of co2.

      February 9, 2013 at 4:24 pm |
      • Arias

        Yeah but in 100 million years if our species is still around we should have figured out a solution by then, if we're even on this planet anymore and haven't terraformed other planets and moons in our solar system to comfortably live on. Think about how long that is.

        February 9, 2013 at 6:27 pm |
      • Traylor

        But the global warming shills are telling us we are killing the Earth by creating too much CO2. Now you're telling us there won't be enough? This is why people turn to stupid stuff like treating the Bible like a science book. Real scientists can't get their stuff together.

        February 9, 2013 at 11:53 pm |
      • chubby rain


        The problem is you (as an average American) have the scientific literacy of an elementary school student and can't tell what is "good" science.

        February 10, 2013 at 12:10 pm |
      • Amuzed

        Robert – "Each hundred million years temps go up 10% percent" ?????? Source please?
        Where on Earth did you get this nonsense from? The average global temperature will slowly climb up and then slowly back down in long (roughly, between 50,000 to 120,000 years) , slightly erratic cycles! These cycles are clearly present in the ice core samples and in the geologic record! This slow warming trend that we are in presently, started well over 2,000 years ago (maybe as long as 12,000 years ago) and may well last hundreds or even thousands more years before the average global temperatures begin to slowly fall again! These cycles are not identical nor predictable enough for us to be able to tell exactly when it will "peak" nor how long it will last, but the fact that these cycles exist AND repeat is irrefutable!

        February 21, 2013 at 5:38 pm |
      • Piperman

        .And the authenticated scientific source of your information is . . .?

        February 21, 2013 at 6:01 pm |
    • Dragon ball Z

      Exact date would be February 8, 8,000,000,2013 that is 8 billion years for american system of counting. English would take much longer.

      February 9, 2013 at 6:16 pm |
      • mark v

        Write that date down on a stone calendar and leave it someplace safe for someone to find.

        February 9, 2013 at 9:32 pm |
    • Dragon ball Z

      Humans will destroy the planet, kill all living things before the Sun gets the chance. 13 billion years from now would be say February 20, 13,000,000,2013. In the last 50 years, humans have annihilated themselves with the use of modern weapons. With a nuke device, humans will destroy Earth.

      Dates that humans will scorch Earth. Current year plus 50 till you reach 13 billion years.
      1. 2013 – 2063 flashpoint: Iran China. World population 20 billion add global warming.
      2. 2063 – 2103 flashpoint: Earths limited resources: World population 40 billion
      3. 2103 – 2153 flashpoint: No more space for humans. World population 60 billion

      February 9, 2013 at 10:59 pm |
      • someguy

        You're assuming people will continue breeding at the rates they are. Once people run out of resources they will stop making so many babies. It'll be similar to the one child policy but it'll be necessary. It only takes a little desperation for people to correct their ways. We'll be long dead by then so who cares.

        February 10, 2013 at 3:07 pm |
    • Corey

      And as long as it doesn't effect you or anyone you care about, who cares, right? So glad that you are the center of the Universe.

      February 9, 2013 at 11:38 pm |
    • terri

      All of the bloggers making fun of David forget that the same reaction occurred prior to the flood. Noah was labelled as a crazy old man until the rain actually started. Then all of the scoffers desperately wanted another chance but it was too late. God created science so disregarding the Bible is fulfilling Bible prophecy of those who worship creation rather than the creator. In addition, the Bible says that there will be scoffers in the last days.

      History repeats itself because no matter the age in which we live, human behavior does not change. People who rely on their own intelligence for guidance can only see so far back in time, therefore they convince themselves and others that we are an advanced civilization and anything beyond that is primitive. However, believing a lie doesn't make it true. Just like those who perished in the flood, those who have no in-depth knowledge of what the Bible says won't be able to obtain that knowledge once world events prove the Bible true.

      February 10, 2013 at 6:45 am |
      • Medicine Man

        Human behavior does change. For example, there is growing evidence that even a few hundred years ago we used to sleep in two phases – not the solid 8 hours (give or take) that we think of as normal. gives some useful insights.

        February 10, 2013 at 7:00 am |
      • skins2153

        The bible is the definitive of absolutely nothing. You believe something that stifles humanity's progress. Noah? If you take the bible to be anything more than stories to help you live with yourself then you are simply another plugged-in fool. I believe you should stay on Fox.

        February 10, 2013 at 10:21 am |
    • Perspective B

      I don't even think my family home movies will survive that long ;). Billions of year. Hopefully by then we will have turned the earth into an intergalactic space ship, travelling the universe in search of intelligent life.

      February 11, 2013 at 4:11 am |
  89. Animal

    So, if the sun for billions of years is going to be stable, and that pretty much holds true for most stars, what is the point and how much of my tax dollars is going into this. This guy needs to find a real job.

    February 9, 2013 at 12:17 am |
    • Acceler8

      Sorry for the long reply. Please edify yourself on the two summaries below. Either way u look at it, especially summary number 2, somehow and sometime soon the Sun will cause some damage to earth, no bones about it. Plus, you gotta remember our country does not dedicate funds for critical research in this field and as such, we still don't know a lot about space. But suffice it to say, without any other theories (such as planet alignment, pole shifting, environmental damage to Earth, etc.) taken into consideration, as of late there have been many large solar storms taking place on the sun. There have been numerous Coronal Flares that accompany these storms as well. Already, we have experienced cell phone outages, major electrical outages in the country and – MAJOR STRANGE WEATHER EVENTS. You cannot argue with that. In closing here, but read the summaries below, thiis speaker accomplished what he set out to do. Create awareness, controversy, worry, etc. as well as he effectively stuck a thorn in our side about STEM education and the need for us to educate our children and us as well. So kudos to him for getting his point across. Now for all you doubters...........and remember this is only with the technology we now have, which is not much, read on.

      One popular theory is that a huge solar flare could do the Earth in. Some fearmongers have pointed out that the sun's activity is ramping up, implying that a killer outburst could be coming next year. [Worst Solar Storms in History]

      The sun is indeed building up toward the peak of its 11-year activity cycle. But that peak is expected to come in 2013 or 2014, not 2012, researchers said. Also, countless solar maxima have come and gone over the years, and we — and the Earth — are still here.

      But that reasoning is all secondary to the main point, which is that a flare's sizzling heat cannot make it all the way to our planet, researchers said.

      Space weather still an issue

      The sun's rumblings can and do affect our planet, of course. Flares, for example, can temporarily alter Earth's upper atmosphere, causing disruptions in satellite communications.

      And coronal mass ejections (CMEs) — huge eruptions of solar plasma that streak into space at 3 million mph (5 million kph) or more — can be even more troublesome. CMEs that hit Earth can knock out GPS signals, radio communications and power grids.

      A powerful, well-aimed CME could thus wreak serious havoc on our increasingly tech-enabled and tech-dependent society. But it wouldn't destroy the planet or wipe out humanity, researchers said. – NOW READ THIS...

      I have never read the book or saw the movie about the galatic alignment/conjunction but the science is sound. Based on where planet earth lies in this galatic conjunction I am concerned with the effects of cosmic weather. A sizable solar flare or related cosmic weather could produce Electromagnetic pulses that could render all electronics and technology useless. Imagine waking up one day late for work. You discover your clock doesn’t work. You turn on the television and nothing happens . You check your celephone, Blackberry or tablet to see what time it is. Giving up you attempt to bathe and find there is no hot water. You head out the door get into you car and it does nothing when you turn the key. No this is not the end of the world but maybe after that December morning in 2012 all of will wish it was. The scary part is that none of us will be prepared. Because of cognitive dissonance mankind will bury his head in the sand because such a possibility is too painful to phantom. Unlike the new millenium computer (marketing) hoax cosmic weather is a reality and is even more probable due to the compromise of our ozone layer. I beleive it is time to prepare. Bring back morse code. Teach our children how to make clean water and to live independently without gadgets. Their very lives just might depend on it.

      “No Tech dependence” is something all peoples of earth should pursue. Even without the galatic alignment/conjunction we must be prepared to live in a world without technology. And 2012 is as good an excuse as any.

      February 9, 2013 at 4:37 am |
      • kent

        okay, thank you jimmy for that fine report. cindy, it's your turn to tell us about the flesh sucking plants you and your family brought back from your trip to africa. sit down boys and girls, here we go.

        February 9, 2013 at 11:21 pm |
    • GlobalScorching

      LOL. Maybe we should try taxes a la carte? When you fill out your 1040, you get to specify what line items you want to support?

      February 9, 2013 at 11:29 am |
  90. Puckles

    Actually, the sun won't fry the earth, because GOD won't let it.

    February 8, 2013 at 10:50 pm |
    • LVguest

      Oh Puckles, You're such a schmuck.

      February 8, 2013 at 11:40 pm |
      • mack

        Why is he a schmuck? This the best scientific estimate we have. Earth will be fried and everything on it dead. You don't have to worry about it because it's billions of years in the future. How convenient for you to not change your thinking about things and to make fun of those who are currently studying this end-all outcome. I guess your God just planned it that way fro the get-go, right?

        February 8, 2013 at 11:55 pm |
    • Tallus

      Your God already "let" several holes get burned into the atmosphere by the irresponsible use of DDTs and other chemicals during the big bonanzas of the 40s and 50s. Similarly, your God won't do anything to stop the sun from running its natural lifecycle as a regular star...bloating to an enormous size (compared to today) before finally shrinking into itself.

      But, given the lifecycle of religions, by the time the sun actually does so...Christianity will be as curious a fable as the gods of Olympus and the legends of Odin are today. Humanity will be long gone, in either case. Exterminated by our own doing, evolved into something different, or having left the planet outright to find resources elsewhere like the parasitic worms we are.

      February 9, 2013 at 3:26 am |
      • esmiranda

        I was just thinking that the planet will be lucky to survive long enough to see it's natural death from the expansion of its dying Sun. Humans will probably murder the planet long before that time comes, unfortunately.

        February 9, 2013 at 8:23 am |
      • Brian

        The planet will be fine, it's been through worse things than we're capable of producing. Human beings though? We're done.

        February 9, 2013 at 12:59 pm |
      • kent

        man won't be around a million years from now. my bet is on something he does to himself.

        February 9, 2013 at 11:27 pm |
      • Leo

        Tallus, I couldn't have said it better myself.

        February 10, 2013 at 12:41 am |
    • PucklesIsADope

      Truly, you are a dope.

      February 9, 2013 at 8:18 am |
    • Bob Brown

      "Won't be water, but fire next time!"

      February 9, 2013 at 9:28 am |
    • MandoZink

      A god that allows evil surely would. Hey, in the bible God killed more people than Satan did.

      Luckily we have developed morals in spite of religion.

      February 9, 2013 at 11:27 am |
    • Pyretta

      People just do not understand sarcasm anymore hahah

      February 9, 2013 at 3:41 pm |
    • Richie

      Frying the earth is part of God's plan.

      February 10, 2013 at 12:34 pm |
      • TG

        Th earth will never "fry". Why ? Because our Creator, Jehovah God, has established it forever. At Isaiah 45, it says: "For this is what Jehovah has said, the Creator of the heavens, He the true God, the Former of the earth and the Maker of it, He the One who firmly established it, who did not create it simply for nothing, who formed it even to be inhabited: "I am Jehovah, and there is no one else."(Isa 45:18) In addition, at Psalms 104, it says that God "has founded the earth upon its established places; It will not be made to totter to time indefinite, or forever."(Ps 104:5)

        The wrong view of the earth being "burned up" comes from 2 Peter 3:10 that is presented in many Bibles. However, upon a critical examination, it has been found to have been tampered with, with the original (and correct) reading being as the "earth and the works in it will be discovered" (reading of the Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus of the 4th century) and not "burned up". Someone after the 4th century supplanted the Greek word heurethesetai (meaning "to find or discover") with the Greek word katakaesetai (meaning "to burn down") at 2 Peter 3:10 in later Greek manuscripts.

        God has purposed for the earth to remain eternally, and be transformed into a paradise for "meek" ones. Thus, Psalms 37 says: "But the meek ones themselves will possess the earth, and they will indeed find their exquisite delight in the abundance of peace....forever."(Ps 37:11, 29; Matt 5:5) This has always been God's purpose, having placed Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden and extend its boundary to the ends of the earth as their family increased.(Gen 1:28)

        February 10, 2013 at 6:03 pm |
    • I AM

      I thank god every day for protecting my genitals.

      February 10, 2013 at 3:29 pm |
    • Anon

      You never made it to Sunday-school did you?

      February 12, 2013 at 2:00 am |
  91. Brian

    This has been known for a few decades.

    February 8, 2013 at 10:14 pm |
    • Moses

      Not by most Americans. They think Christ is coming back.

      February 9, 2013 at 12:08 am |
      • Violet Weed

        Only Americans? I think you meant to say Christians, think God is coming back to earth in human form. Maybe He is, only God knows for sure. All any human being knows is that they will die one day. After that?............??

        February 9, 2013 at 12:19 am |
      • Dan

        Yes. There is a lot of ignorance in this country. Some people still think that people were created with a magical rib.

        February 9, 2013 at 8:44 am |
  92. jason mazzotta

    Never mind the expansion of the sun before it becomes a white dwarf. Before that happens, the Andromeda galaxy will collide with the Milky Way galaxy (~.25 billion years). After that, the sun will heat up enough that the earth will no longer be in the habitable/"goldilocks" zone of the earth (~ 1 billion years). Given the assumed date that Mars lost its atmosphere, and that the Earth has 3 times the volume, the core of the earth will freeze up in about 3 billion years, the Earth's magnetic field will disappear completely and the solar wind will strip away the atmosphere. THEN, at about 5 billion years, the sun will expand, engulf the earth and become a white dwarf. In the much shorter term, we need to be worried about geomagnetic reversal.

    February 8, 2013 at 8:18 pm |
    • Kingofthenet

      Pole Reversals have happened many times in the Earth's history, besides some more skin Cancers, maybe some burned out electronics, but we will survive it.

      February 8, 2013 at 9:07 pm |
      • ScottM

        ..Meh i will be dead long before this stuff matters :-p

        February 8, 2013 at 11:41 pm |
    • MC

      Nope. The Milky Way won't collide with Andromeda for about 4 billion years.

      February 8, 2013 at 11:41 pm |
      • UncleBenny

        And galactic "collisions" are not really the cataclysmic event that the word would lead you to believe. Galaxies are mostly empty space; it's more like a slow, gentle merging.

        February 9, 2013 at 6:34 am |
  93. Phillip Flach

    As mass from the sun is blown beyond the earth's orbit, the earth's orbit will expand. So how much of a red giant sun engulfs the earth will have to be calculated based on this factor also. The oceans still dry up. (By the way, if you want to make a scale model of the oceans, take a volleyball and cover 70 percent of its surface will one layer of magazine paper. That's a one inch to 1000 miles scale, so 0.002 inches thick paper represents 2 mile deep oceans pretty closely. I.e., we have a slightly damp sphere to live on).

    February 8, 2013 at 8:00 pm |
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